DOEACC NIELIT O Level January 2008 Question Answer Sample Model Paper Solution

DOEACC NIELIT O Level January 2008 Question Answer Sample Model Paper Solution

DOEACC CCC NIELIT O Level Previous Year Question Answer With Solution 2008.

SOLUTIONS JANUARY, 2008

PART ONE

MULTIPLE CHOICE O Level January 2008 Question Paper

Ans. 1.

1.1 (A) A device that prins text or illustrations on paper. There are many different types of printers.

1.2 (D) Software controlling the overall operation of a multipurpose computer system, including such tasks as memory allocation, input and output distribution, interrupt processing, and job scheduling. The operating system is programmed to act as an interface between the user of a computer and the computer devices.

1.3 (C) 1024Kb

1.4 (C) For printers, the DPI specification indicates the number of dots per inch that the printer is capable of achieving to from text or graphics on the printed page. The higher the DPI, the more refined the text or image will appear.

1.5 (A) In computer hardware, a port serves as an interface between the computer and other computers or devices.

1.6 (D) bmp stands for bitmap files and gif stands for graphics interchange format.

1.7 (C) An email id consist of username@hostname.domain

1.8 (A) insert-Picture-clip art…….

1.9 (B) mail merge is prominent feature of MS – Word.

1.10 (B) * is for multiplication.

 TRUE / FALSE O Level January 2008 Question Paper

Ans. 2

2.1 (F) In earlier versions of Excel #### is displayed but in Office XP, 2003, 2007 complete value of cell is displayed.

2.2 (T) A device that controls the movement of the cursor or pointer on a display screen. A mouse is a small object you can roll along a hard. Flat surface. Its name is derived from its shape, which looks a bit like a mouse, its connecting wire that one can imagine to be the mouse’s tail.

2.3 (F) Printer is an output device.

2.4 (T) MS – Word is a word processor.

2.5 (F) In downloading files are copied from internet locations to your computer.

2.6 (F) I byte is equal to 8 bits.

2.7 (F) Inkjet printer sprays drops of ink on the paper.

2.8 (F) Spread sheets can use dates in calculations.

2.9 (T) Sometimes the text entered in cells is also called label.

2.10 (F) In notes plane the user can create notes if he or she desires.

MATCHING THE COLUMNS O Level January 2008 Question Paper

Ans. 3

3.1 (K) 1 GB = 1024 MB

3.2 (D) A printed paper copy of output in readable form.

3.3 (F) A program interface that takes advantage of the computer’s graphics capabilities to make the program easier to use.

3.4 (N) Software is a general term for the various kinds of programs used to operate computers and related device.

3.5 (L) A computer program steps (or set of programs) that is designed to systematically solve a certain kind of problem.

3.6 (B) A modem is a device or program that enables a computer to transmit data over, for example, telephone or cable lines. Computer information is stored digitally. Whereas information transmitted over telephone lines is transmitted in the form of analog waves. A modem converts between these two forms.

3.7 (J) Compact Disc-Read-Only Memory, a type of optical disk capable of storing large amounts of data – up to 1 GB, although the most common size is 650MB (megabytes). A single CD-ROM has the storage capacity of 700 floppy disks, enough memory to store about 300,000 text pages.

3.8 (E) The use of computers to present text, graphics, video, animation, and sound in an integrated way.

3.9 (G) Spreadsheet provides hundreds of functions for performing various types of calculations.

3.10 (C) The VI editor is a screen-based editor used by many Unix / Linux users.

FILL IN THE BLANKS O Level January 2008 Question Paper

Ans. 4

4.1 (E) RAM is primary volatile memory. MS – Word is one of the most powerful word processor.

4.2 (I) MS – Word is one of the most powerful word processor.

4.3 (A) An operating system is CD – ROM software. For details, please see the answer of Q. 1. 2 of this power.

4.4 (N) Unix commands are case sensitive.

5.5 (O) (American Standard Code for Information interchange) the universal standard for representing text letters, numerals, punctuation marks and control.

5.6 (G) Clipboard stores copied or cut. Data temporarily.

4.7 (J) JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group) is a lossy compression technique for color pictures.

4.8 (C) Insert feature moves text to make room for new words.

4.9 (M) An icon is a graphic image, a small picture or object that represents a file, program, web page, or command.

4.10 (D) Speed of clock clip is measured in MHz.

PART II O Level January 2008 Question Paper

Ans. 5 (a)

Converting (7305)8 into binary:

From right side start converting the number into binary Consider only 3 bits:

Step 1: take 5 and covert it into binary from – 101

Step 2: take 0 and convert it into binary from – 000

Step 3: take 3 and convert it into binary form – 011

Step – take 7 and convert it into binary form – 111

The answer is : )111 011 000 101)2

Converting  (1023)10 into hexadecimal:

Step 1: divide 1023 by 16, quotient is – 63, remainder is – 15 i. e – F

Step: divide 63 by 16, quotient is – 3, remainder is – 15 i.e – F

IT TOOLS & BUSINESS SYSTEMS

Step 3: last digit remaining is 3 the answer is 3FF.

Ans. 5(b)

Functional units of computer: Since the computer follows input – process – output cycle. The first stage is performed in computer by input unit. Second stage is performed by its central processing unit and the third stage is performed by output unit.

INPUT

UNIT

CENTRAL

PROCESSING

UNIT

OUTPUT

UNIT

 

INPUT UNIT: The input is formed by the input devices attached to the computer like mouse. Keyboard etc. Input unit is responsible for taking input and converting into computer understandable form (binary)

CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT: The CPU is the control center. It guides, directs and governs its performance. It is the brain of the computer. The CPU has three components which are responsible for different functions. These components are Control Unit,  Arithmetic Logic Unit, Memory unit.

OUTPUT UNIT: The output unit is formed by the output coming from the CPU is in the form of electronic binary signals which can be easily understood by human beings i.e., charcters, graphical or audio visual. This function of conversion is performed by output units. Some popular output devices are VDU, printer etc.

Ans. 5(c)

RAM is Random Access Memory. It is a volatile type of memory that needs electricity to flow to retain information. It is the type of memory that computers use to process programs.

ROM is Read Only Memory. Essentially it is a piece of permanently written information stored as memory. There are versions of this memory that can be rewritten but it is then called EPROM (Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory) and generally takes ultraviolet light to clear. The easiest way to understand the difference is to think of this as a blackboard. Whien memory is being used as RAM it’s a blackboard that is constantly being rewritten and then washed and rewritten. Thousands of times per minute. If it was ROM, the writing would be in acrylic paint, that can’t be removed. EPROM would be the same paint but it can be removed by very special and specific means.

Ans. 5(d)

  1. SYSTEM SOFTWARE is a software that control and coordinate all the operation of the devces connected to computer. Example Operating System. Drivers, Translator etcx.
  2. APPLICATION SOFTWARE is software designed to performs specific task such as Word processor to store text data, Spreadsheet for the analysis of numerical data, Databases to store and manipulate large about of data etc.

Ans. 6(a)

Impact or non-impact: Impact printers include all printers that work by striking an ink ribbon. Daisy-wheel. Dot-matrix, and line printers are impact printers.  Include laser printers and inkjet printers. The important difference between impact and non-impact printers is that impact printers are much noiser.

Ans. 6(b)

Primary Memory (Main Memory):
The main memory is internal Memory of a Computer  system. It can be broadly divided into two categories:

(i) RAM (Random Access Memory)

(ii) ROM (Read Only Memory)

RAM: in the random – access memory, the memory cells can be accessed for information transfer from any desired random location. It can be used to perform read as well as write operations. The main drawback of RAM is that it is volatile memory. That is. When the power goes off, the contents of RAM get erased. It can be classified as Dynamic RAM and Static RAM.

ROM : ROM is a memory unit that performs the read operation only: it does not have a write capability. This implies that the binary information stored in a ROM is made permanent during the hardware production of the unit and cannot be altered by writing different words into it (nonvolatile). There are various types of ROM like PROM, EPROM, EEPROM etc.

Ans. 6(c)

INPUT DEVICES:

Mouse: A mouse (Plural mice or mouses) functions as a pointing device BY detecting two-dimensional motion relative to its supporting surface. Physically, a mouse consists of a small case, held under one of the user’s hands, with one or more buttons. It sometimes features other elements, such as “wheels”, which allow the user to perform various system dependent operations, or extra buttons or features can add more control. Or dimensional input. The mouse’s motion typically translates into the motion of a pointer on a display.

Input Devices
Input Devices

The ball mouse utilizes tow rollers rolling against tow sides of the ball. One roller detects the horizontal motion of the mouse and other the vertical motion. The motion of these tow rollers causes tow disc like encoder wheels to rotate, interrupting optical beams to generate electrical signals. The mouse sends these signals to the computer system by means of connecting wires. The driver software in the system converts the signals into motion of the mouse pointer along X and Y axes on the screen.

Keyboard: A keyboard is a peripheral partially modeled after the typewriter keyboard. Physically, a  keyboard is an arrangement of rectangular buttons, or keys. A keyboard typically has characters engraved or printed on the keys; in most cases, each press of a key corresponds to a single written symbol. However. To produce some symbols requires pressing and holding several keys simultaneously or in sequence: other keys do not produce any symbol, but instead affect the operation of the computer or the keyboard itself.

OUTPUT DEVICES:

Printer: A Printer, produces a hard copy (permanent human-readable text and/or graphics) of documents stored in electronic form, usually on physical print media such as paper or transparencies. Many printers are primarily used as local computer peripherals, and are attached by a printer cable to computer which serves as a document source. Some printers, commonly known as network printers, have built in network interfaces (typically wireless or Ethernet), and can serve as a hardcopy device for any user on the network. Individual printers are often designed to support both local and network connected users at the same time.

In addition, many modern printers can directly interface to electronic media such as memory sticks or memory cards, or to image capture devices such as digital cameras, scanners; some printers are combined with a scanners and/or fax machines in a single unit. Printers that include non-printing features are sometimes called Multi- Function Printers (MFP) or Multi-Function Devices (MFD).

A printer which is combined with a scanner can function as a photocopier with a scanner can function as a photocopier if so designed. Most MFPs include printing, scanning, and copying among their features.

Printers are designed for low-volume, short turnaround print jobs; requiring virtually no setup time to achieve a hard copy of a given document. However, printers are generally slow devices (30 pages per minute is considered fast: and many consumer printers are far slower than that), and the cost-per-page is relatively high.

Visual Display Unit: A computer display monitor, usually called simply a monitor, is a piece of electrical equipment which displays viewable images generated by a computer without producing a permanent record. The word “monitor” is used in other contexts: in particular in television broadcastin, where a television picture is displayed to a high standard. A computer display device is usually either a cathode ray tube or some form of flat panel such as a TFT LCD. The monitor comprises the display device, circuitry to generate a picture from electronic signals sent by the computer, and an enclosure or case. Within the computer, either as an in integral part or a plugged-in interface, there is circuitry to convert internal data to a format compatible with a monitor.

Ans. 6 (d)

Please See Q.6(c) or this paper.

Ans. 7(a)

To avoid printing page number on the firts page, follow these steps a

  • Go to file menu a page setup…..
  • In Headers and Footers section check different first page

 

Page Setup
Page Setup

Ans. 7(b)

You can change the spacing between the lines or the spacing before or after each paragraph.

Change line spacing

  1. Select the text you want change.
  2. On the Formatting toolbar (toolbar: A bar with buttons and options that you use to carry out commands. To display a toolbar, press ALT and then SHIFT + F10.) point to Line Spacing and then do one of the following:
  • To apply a new setting, click the arrow, and then select the number that you want.
  • To apply the most recently used setting, click the button.
  • To set more precise measurements, click the arrow, click More, and then select the options you want under Line Spacing,’

Change spacing before or after paragraphs

  1. Select the paragraphs in which you want to change spacing.
  2. On the Format menu, click Paragraph, and then click the Indents and Spacing tab. Under Spacing, enter the spacing you want in the Before or After box.

Ans. 7(c)

Apply a custom animation

  1. In normal view, display the slide that has the text or objects you want to animate.
  2. Select the object you want to animate.
  3. on the Slide Show menu, click Custom Animation.
  4. In the Custom Animation task pane (task pane: A window within an Office application that provides commonly used commands. Its location and small size allow you to use these commands while still working on your files.), click Add Effec, and do one or more of the following:

If you want to make the text or an object that is on the slide, Point to Entrance and then click an effect.

If you want to add an effect to text or an object that is on the slide, point to Emphasis and thenclick an effect.

If you want to add an effect to text or an object that makes it leave the slide at some point. Point to Exit and then click an Effect.

If you want to add an effect that makes an object move in a specified pattern. Point to Animating Text and then click an effect.

Animating Text to make it appear letter by letter

  1. In Slide View, select the text you want to animate by clicking it.
  2. From the Slide show menu, select Custom Animation. The Custom Animation task pane will appear, Click the add Effect button. Select Entrance, then select More Effects.
  3. The Add Entrance Effect dailog box will appear. Scroll down the list and click Color Typewriter. Then click Ok.

Ans. 8(a) You can create a chart on its own chart sheet (chart sheet: A sheet in a workbook that contains only a chart. A chart sheet is beneficial when you want to view a chart or a PivotChart report separately from worksheet rather than on a sparate chart sheet. Embedded charts are beneficial when you want to view or print a chart or a PivotChart report with its source data or other information in a worksheet.) on a worksheet. Either way, the chart is linked to the source data on the worksheet, which mens the chart is updated when you update the worksheet data.

Embedded Charts An embedded chart is considered graphic object and is saved as part of the worksheet on which it is created. Use embedded charts when you want to display or print one or more charts with your worksheet data.

Embedded Charts
Embedded Charts

Chart Sheets A chart sheet is a separate sheet within your workbook that has its own sheet name. Use a chart sheet when you want to view or edit large or complex charts separately from the worksheet data or when you want to preserve screen space as you work on the worksheet.

Chart Sheets
Chart Sheets

When you create a chart, the legend (legend: A box that identifies  the patterns or colors that are assigned to the data sries or categories in a chart.) appears by default – unless you specify to hide it in the Chart Wizard. You can also hide the legend or change its location in an existing chart.

Show or hide a legend

  • Click the chart sheet (chart sheet: A sheet in a workbook that contains only a chart. A chart sheet is beneficial when you want to view a chart or a Pivot Chart report separately from worksheet data or a PivotTable report.) or the embedded chart (embedded chart: A chart that is placed on a worksheet rather than on a separate chart or a PivotChart report with its source data or other information in a worksheet.) to which you want to add a legend.
  • On the Chart menu, click Chart Options.
  • On the Legend tab, select or clear the show legend check box to show or hide the legend.
  • Under Placement, click the option that you want.

Note When you click one of the Placement options, the legend moves, and the plot area (plot area:In a 2-d Chart, the area bounded by the axes, including all data series. In a 3-D Chart, the area bounded by the axes, including the data series, category names, tick-mark tables, and axis titles,) automatically adjusts to accommodate it, If you move and size the legend by using the mouse, the plot area does not automatically adjust, When you use the Placement options, the legend loses any custom sizing that you may have already applied by using the mouse.

Ans. 8(b)

Relative references When you create a formula, references to cell or ranges are usually based on their position relative to the cell that contains the formula. In the following example, cell B6 contains the formula = A5; Microsoft Excel finds the value one cell above and one cell to the left of B6. This is known as a relative reference.

Relative references
Relative references

When you copy a formula that uses relative references, Excel automatically adjusts the references in the pasted formula to refer to different cells relative to the position of the formula. In the following example, the formula in cell B, = A5, which is one cell above and to the left of B6, has been copied to cell B7, Excel has adjusted the formula in cell B7 to =A6, which refers to the cell that is one cell above and to the left of cell B7.

Relative references
Relative references

Absolute references If you don’t want Excel to adjust references when you copy a formula to a different cell, use an absolute reference. For  example, if your formula multiplies cell A5 with cell C1 (=A5*C1) and you copy the formula to another cell, Excel will adjust both references. You can create an absolute reference to cell C1 by placing a dollar sign ($) before the parts of the reference that do not change. To create an absolute reference to cell C1, for example, add dollar signs to the formula as follows:

=A5*$C$!

Ans. 8(c)

ROUND()

Rounds a number to a specified number of digits.

Syntax

ROUND(number,num_digits)

Number is the number you want to round.

Num_digits specifies the number of digits to which you want to round number,

Remarks

If num_digits is greater than 0 (zero), then number is rounded to the specified number of decimal places,

If num_digits is 0, then number is rounded to the nearest integer.

If num_digits is less than 0, then number is rounded to the left of the decimal point.

AB
FORMULADescription (Result)
=ROUND(2.15, 1)Rounds 2.15 to one decimal place (2.2)
=ROUND(2.149, 1)Rounds 2.149 to one decimal place (2.1)
=ROUND(-1.475,2)Rounds -1.475 to two decimal places (-1.48)
=ROUND(21.5, -1)Rounds 21.5 to one decimal place to the left of the decimal point (20)

ROUNDUP0

Rounds a number up, away from 0 (zero)

Syntx

ROUNDUP(NUMBER,NUM-DIGITS)

Number is any real number that you want rounded up.

Num_digits is the number of digits to which you want to round number.

Remarks

ROUNDUP behaves like ROUND, except that it always rounds a number up.

If num_digits is greater than 0 (zero), then number is rounded up to the specified number of decimal places.

If num-_digits is 0, then number is rounded up to the nearest integer.

If num_digits is less than 0, then number is rounded up to the left of the decimal point.

AB
=ROUNDUP(3.2,0)Rounds 3.2 up to zero decimal places (4)
=ROUNDUP(76.9,0)Rounds 76.9 up to zero decimal places (77)
=ROUNDUP(3.14159,3)Rounds 3.14159 up to three decimal places (3.142)
=ROUNDUP(-3.14159, 1)Rounds -3.14159 up to one decimal place (-3.2)
=ROUNDUP(31415.92654, -2)Rounds 31415.92654 up to 2 decimal places to the left of the decimal (31500)

ROUNDDOWN()

Rounds a number down, toward zero.

Syntax

ROUNDDOWN(number, num_digits)

Number is any real number that you want rounded down.

Num_digits is the number of digits to which you want to round number.

Remarks

  • ROUNDDOWN behaves like ROUND, except that it always rounds a number down.
  • If num-digits is greater than 0 (zero), then number is rounded down to the specified number of decimal places.
  • If num-digits is 0, then number is rounded down to the nearest integer.
  • If num-digits is less than 0, then number is rounded down to the left of the decimal point.
AB
FormulaDescription (Result)
=ROUNDDOWN(3.2, 0)Rounds 3.2 down to zero decimal places (3)
=ROUNDDOWN(76.9,0)Rounds 76.9 down to zero decimal places (76)
=ROUNDDOWN(3.14159,3)Rounds 3.14159 down to three decimal places (3.141)
=ROUNDDOWN(-3.14159, 1)Rounds -3.14159 down to one decimal place (-3.1)
=ROUNDDOWN(31415.92654, -2)Rounds 31415.92654 down to 2 decimal places to the left of the decimal (31400)

Ans. 9(a)

Compilers: A program that translates source code into object code. The compiler derives its name from the way it works, looking at the entire piece of source code and collecting and reorganizing the instructions. Compilers require some time before an executable program emerges. However, programs produced by compilers run much faster than the same programs executed by an interpreter. Every high-level programming language e.g C, For Tran etc. ForTran etc. (except strictly interpretive languages) comes with a compiler. In effect, the compiler is the language, because it defines which instructions are acceptable.

Interpreters: An interpreter translates high-level instructions into an intermediate from, which it then executes. The advantage of an interpreter, however, is that it does not need to go through the compilation stage during which machine instructions are generated. This process can be time-consuming if the program is long. The interpreter, on the other hand, can immediately execute high-level programs, For this reason, interpreters are sometimes used during the development of a program, when a programmer wants to add small sections at a time and test them quickly. In addition, interpreters are often used in education because they allow to program interactively. Examples are BASIC and LIPS

Ans. 9(b)

CPU Scheduling: Process management is an operating system’s way of dealing with running those multiple processes. On the most fundamental of computers (those containing one processor with one core) multitasking is done by simple switching processes quickly. Depending on the operating system. As more processes run, either each time slice will become smaller or there will be a longer delay before each process is given a chance to run. Process management involves computing and distributing CPU time as well as other resources, Most operating systems allow a process to be assigned a priority which affects its allocation of CPU time. Interactive operating systems also employ some. Level of feedback in which the task with which the user is working receives higher priority.

Memory Management: An operating system’s disk manager coordinates the use of these various types of memory by tracking which one is available, which is to be allocated or deal located and how to move data between them. This activity usually referred to as virtual memory management. Increases There is a speed penalty associated with using disk or other slower storage as memory – if running processes require significantly more RAM than is available, the system may star thrashing. This can happen either because one process requires a large amount or RAM or because two or more processes computer for a larger amount of memory than is available. This then leads to constant transfer of each process’s data to slower storage.

Storage Systems: Generally, operating systems include support for file systems. Modern file systems comprise a hierarchy of directories while the idea is conceptually similar across all general-purpose file systems. Some differences in implementation exist. Tow noticeable examples of this are the character used to separate directories, and case sensitivity.

Unix demarcates its path components with a slash (/), a convention followd by operating systems that emulated it or at least its concept of hierarchical directories, such as Linux, Amiga OS and Mac OS X. MS-DOS also emulated this feature, but had already also adopted the CP/M convention of using slashes for additional options to commands, so insted used the backslash (\) as its component separator. Microsoft Windows continues with this convention

Protection: If multiple processes are in memory at once, they much be prevented from interfering with each other’s memory (unless there is an explicit request to utilize shared memory). This is achieved by having separate address spaces. Each process sees the whole virtual address space, typically from address 0 up to the maximum size of virtual memory, as uniquely assigned to it. The operating system maintains a page table that match virtual addresses to physical addresses. These memory allocations are tracked so that when a process terminates, all memory used by that process can be made available for other processes.

The operating system can also write inactive memory pages to secondary storage. This process is called “paging” or “swapping” – the terminology varies between operating systems.

Ans. 9(c)

System Boot Sequence: The system BIOS is what starts the computer running when you turn it on. The following are the steps that a typical boot sequence  involves. Of course this will vary by the manufacturer of your hardware, BIOS, etc., and especially by what peripherals you have in the PC. Here is what generally happens when you turn on your system power:

  1. The internal power supply turns on and initializes. The power supply takes some time until it can generate reliable power for the rest of the computer, and having it turn on prematurely cuold potentially lead damage. Therefore, the chipset will generate a reset signal to the processor (the same as if you held the reset button down for a while on your case) until it receives the Power Good signal from the power suply.
  2. When the reset button is released, the processor will be ready to start executing. When the processor first starts up, it is suffering from amnesia; there is nothing at all in the memory to execute. Of course processor makers know this will happen, so they pre-program the processor to always look at the same place in the system BIOS ROM for the start of the BIOS boot program. This is normally location FFFFoh, right at the end of the system memory. They put it there so that the size of the ROM changed without creating compatibility problems. Since there are only 16 bytes left form there to the end conventional memory, this location just contains a “jump” instruction telling the processor where to go to find the real BIOS startup program.
  3. The BIOS performs the power-on self test (POST). If there are any fatal errors, the boot process stops. POST beep codes can be found in this area of the Troubleshooting Expert.
  4. The BIOS looks for the video card. In particular, if looks for the video card’s built in BIOS program and runs it. This BIOS is normally found at location C000h in memory. The system BIOS executes the video card BIOS, which initializes the video card. Most modern cards will display information on the screen about the video card. (This is why on a modern PC you usually see something on the screen about hte video card before you see the messages from the system BIOS itself).
  5. The BIOS then looks for other devices’ ROMs to see if any of them have BIOSes. Normally, the IDE/ATA hard disk BIOS will be found at C800h and executed. If any other device BIOSes are found, they are executed as well.
  6. The BIOS displays its startup screen.
  7. The BIOS does more tests on the system, including the memory count-up test which you see on the screen. The BIOS will generally display a text error message on the screen if it encounters an error at this point; these error messages and their expiations can be found in this part of the Troubleshooting Expert.
  8. The BIOS performs a “system inventory” of sorts, doing more tests to determine what sort of hardware is in the system. Modern BIOSes have many automatic settings and will determine memory timing (for example) based on what kind of memory it finds. Many BIOSes can also dynamically set hard drive parameters and access modes, and will determine these at roughly this time. Some will display a message on the screen for each drive they detect and configure this way. The BIOS will also now search for and label Logical device (COM and LPT ports).
  9. If the BIOS supports the Plug and Play standard, it will detect and configure Plug and Play devices at this time and display a message on the screen for each one it finds. See here for more details on how phP detects devices and assigns resources.
  10. The BIOS will display a summary screen about your system’s configuration. Checking this page of data can be helpful in diagnosing setup problems, although it can be hard to see because sometimes it flashes on the screen very quickly before scrolling off the top.
  11. The BIOS begins the search for a drive to boot from. Most modern BIOSes contain a setting that controls if the system should first try to boot from the floppy disk (A:) or first try the hard disk (C:). Some BIOSes will even let you boot from your CD-ROM drive or other devices, depending on the boot sequence BIOS setting.
  12. Having identified its target boot drive, the BIOS looks for boot information to start the operating system boot process. If it is searching a hard disk, it looks for a master boot record at cylinder 0, head 0, sector 1 (the first sector on the disk): if it is searching a floppy disk. It looks at the same address on the floppy disk for a volume boot sector.
  13. If it finds what it is looking for, the BIOS starts the process of booting the operating system, using the information in the boot sector. At this point, the code in the boot sector takes over from the BIOS. The DOS boot process is described in detail here. If the first device that the system tries (floppy, hard disk, etc.) is not found, the BIOS will then try the next device in and boot sequence, and continue until it finds a bootable device.
  14. If no boot device at all can be found. The system will normally display an error message and then freeze up the system. What the error message is depends entirely on the BIOS, and can be anything from the rather clear “No Boot device available” to the very cryptic “NO ROM BASIC – SYSTEM HALTED”. This will also happen if you have a bootable hard disk partition but forget to set it active.

See Also :

DOEACC NIELIT O Level M1 R4 Previous Year Solved Question Answer Sample Model Paper

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